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Historic Present: Perbedaanya dengan Present Tense dan Past Tense

Ditulis oleh Aan Setyawan
Dipublikasikan pada November 12th at 2:34pm
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1. Pengertian

Historic present adalah tense/pola kalimat yang digunakan untuk menceritakan kejadian masa lalu menggunakan kata kerja present (bukan past). Pada kalimat normal kita akan menggunakan kata kerja past (Verb 2) untuk menceritakan kejadian yang sudah berlalu dan untuk menceritakan kejadiaan saat ini maka kita menggunakan kata kerja present (verb 1). Istilah Historic present digunakan oleh kamus Oxford dan Cambridge, sedangkan Merriam webster menggunakan istilah historical present. Istilah lain dari historic present adalah dramatic present, dan narrative present.

2. Penggunaan

Historic present banyak digunakan dalam menulis tentang sejarah dalam bahasa Latin (istilah dalam bahasa latin praesens historicum). Selain bahasa latin, historic present juga digunakan oleh beberapa bahasa Eropa modern termasuk bahasa Inggris. Dalam bahasa Inggris umumnya historic present digunakan di dalam sebuah narasi di karya sastra, berita, dan beberapa percakapan sehari-hari menggunakan kata kerja tertentu yang berhubungan dengan komunikasi seperti "tell, write, dan "say"

A. Historic Present digunakan di dalam karya sastra

1) Puisi karya shakespeare berjudul hamlet

"He took me by the wrist and held me hard;

Then goes he to the length of all his arm;

And, with his other hand thus o'er his brow,

He falls to such perusal of my face

As he would draw it. Long stay'd he so;

At last, a little shaking of mine arm

And thrice his head thus waving up and down,

He raised a sigh so piteous and profound

As it did seem to shatter all his bulk

And end his being: that done, he lets me go . . .."

(Ophelia in Act One, scene 1 of Hamlet by William Shakespeare)

2) essay oleh Jenny Diski, "Diary." London Review of Books, October 15, 1998.

"I’m nine years old, in bed, in the dark. The detail in the room is perfectly clear. I am lying on my back. I have a greeny-gold quilted eiderdown covering me. I have just calculated that I will be 50 years old in 1997. ‘Fifty’ and ‘1997’ don’t mean a thing to me, aside from being an answer to an arithmetic question I set myself. I try it differently. ‘I will be 50 in 1997.’ 1997 doesn’t matter. ‘I will be 50.’ The statement is absurd. I am nine. ‘I will be ten’ makes sense. ‘I will be 13’ has a dreamlike maturity about it. ‘I will be 50’ is simply a paraphrase for another senseless statement I make to myself at night: ‘I will be dead one day.’ ‘One day I won’t be.’ I have a great determination to feel the sentence as a reality. But it always escapes me. ‘I will be dead’ comes with a picture of a dead body on a bed. But it’s mine, a nine-year-old body. When I make it old, it becomes someone else. I can’t imagine myself dead. I can’t imagine myself dying. Either the effort or the failure to do so makes me feel panicky. . . .

 B. Historic Present digunakan di dalam berita

1). Koran

"Alonzo King is arrested for assault and they swab his cheek as part of the arrest process. It pops up in a database." (The New York Times)

2) siaran olahraga

"He shoots …

"he scores!"

C. Historic Present digunakan di dalam lelucon

"A guy walks into a bar. His buddy laughs and says, "Don't worry, I didn't see it either.  

maksudnya ia telah bertabrakan dengan semacam batang.

"Then he picks it up and actually eats the thing!"

4. Tujuan Penggunaan Historic Present

1) membuat cerita lebih hidup terutama karena membawa tindakan masa lalu ke masa kini

2) membuat orang lebih percaya bahwa kejadian tersebut nyata

 

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